A Further Polyphenol Found In Morocco Gold Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Polyphenols In Morocco Gold Extra Virgin Olive Oil
This continues our series of articles about the polyphenol content of our extra virgin olive oil and what they can do to improve our health. As we have reported, this year’s harvest has produced a low acidity level of 0.2% together with the highest level of polyphenols yet seen in our extra virgin olive oil.
- 3,4 DHPEA-EDA 85 mg/kg
- Hydroxytyrosol 5 mg/kg
- Lignans 26 mg/kg
- Ligstroside aglycone (p, HPEA-EA) 20 mg/kg
- Oleuropein aglycone (3,4 DHPEA-EA) 71 mg/kg
- p, HPEA-EDA 65 mg/kg
- Tyrosol 372 mg/kg
- Polyphenols Total 644mg/kg
So what is the role of Ligstroside Aglycone in this wonderful extra virgin olive oil and what are its health benefits?
Polyphenol : Ligstroside-Aglycone (LA)
This polyphenol is synonymous with p-HPEA-Elenolic acid. It is a member of the Tyrosol family of polyphenols and has the chemical formula : C19H22O7
While information on LA bioactivity is limited, a few years ago, LA was demonstrated to behave as an antioxidant. Furthermore, LA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects by controlling and downregulating NF-κB (NF-kB is a type of DNA that is thought to play a pivotal role in the initiation of osteoarthritis and the perpetuation of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis) as well as the potential to induce a caloric restriction-like state that affects the muscle, brain, fat tissue and kidney, particularly through activation and increased levels of sirtuins. (Sirtuins are a family of proteins that regulate cellular health. They play a key role in regulating cellular homeostasis, keeping cells in balance).
A Study Of Ligstroside-Aglycone In Treatment Of Osteoarthritis
In a recent study at the Faculty Of Pharmacy Seville and the Biomedical Research Institute Coruna (M.S. Meiss, M. Sanchez-Hidalgo, A. González-Benjumea) the effectiveness of LA on osteoarthritis (OA) was examined.
Osteoarthritis is currently, the most frequent cause of pain, deformity and dysfunction in the elderly. It is a late-onset, complex disease of the joint, characterised by progressive failure of the extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM), together with changes in the synovium and subchondral bone.
OA persists as the most common form of arthritis worldwide and the sixth leading cause of disability. Unlike most tissues, articular cartilage does not contain blood vessels, nerves or lymphatics, rather, articular cartilage is composed of a dense ECM with a sparse distribution of highly specialised cells called chondrocytes. Aberrant expression of degradative proteases or catabolic mediators is induced in OA chondrocytes that contributes to cartilage destruction.
To date, there is no definitive cure for this debilitating disease. The mechanism of disease progression in OA remains largely unknown and thus, to date, a more personalised approach is required to aid patient disease management. Current treatments are targeted at reducing symptoms of the inflammatory reaction that occurs following destruction of the essential joint cartilage. These treatments, however, do not prevent the significant pain associated with OA or the often reported restriction of mobility and activity.
To address this unmet need, alternative approaches, including the use of polyphenols as a novel therapeutic intervention are under examination. The objective of this study was to analyse if the polyphenols found in extra virgin olive oil are able to reverse the catabolic activity that contribute to cartilage destruction in OA.
Two polyphenols from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), oleocanthal (OLC) and ligstroside aglycone (LA), plus a chemically modified acetylated ligstroside aglycone (A-LA), and two marine polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were examined as potential anti-inflammatory agents for OA.
Acetylated ligstroside showed the most promising results for implementation in treating OA as it reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP13) and interleukin-1β (IL1B) at both RNA and protein levels; decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels from cartilage explants and also reduced proteoglycan (PG) losses in human osteoarthritic cartilage explants and chondrocytes.
These results substantiate the role of polyphenols in OA with implications for therapeutic intervention and our understanding of OA pathophysiology.
Recently, data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) have demonstrated that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated not only with better quality of life but also, significantly, with a lower prevalence of OA. Given that the general population can be viewed as at risk in the development of OA in later life, an approach that relies on dietary modification is attractive in terms of risk / benefit and, potentially, an approach that is more likely to be implementable. Indeed, as an alternative to traditional treatments, alternative modalities have come to the fore including the effects of polyphenols as non-invasive treatments, based on the evidence that epigenetic changes are triggered by dietary nutrients and contribute to the prevention of a number of diseases.